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Different Types Of Levels Used In Surveying

Sep 29

In surveying, the term "level" refers to a variety of technologies used to ensure horizontality. Various types of levels are employed in surveying, including but not limited to dumpy levels, Y levels, Cushing's levels, tilting levels, Cooke's reversible levels, and automated level instruments. Leveling is a method used in surveying to measure altitude differences. We'll need some sort of leveling tools that can either focus on, or sense the vibrations of, an object in order to determine its level. A wide range of straightforward measurement devices have been created and used into modern surveying equipment. We go through the many tiers that may be used for leveling.

Methods Of Leveling And The Varieties Of Levels Employed

Below are some of the several types of levels seen in surveying:

Sadistic Depth

A dumpy level is the most common instrument used for leveling. At this height, the telescope is fastened to its support and cannot move in the horizontal plane. The telescope has a bubble tube at its top. On the other hand, the leveling head may be turned horizontally by using the telescope. The metal tube that makes up the internal focusing telescope consists of the following four parts.

  • Using an unbiased viewpoint
  • Unfavorable point of view
  • Diaphragm
  • Eye-piece

Make sure you utilize objective Crown glass or flint glass while crafting your lens. The elimination of some defects, such spherical and chromatic aberration, is a possible outcome. Reflection loss can be mitigated by coating the objective lens with a thin layer that has a lower refractive index than glass. When using a negative lens, the perspective is reversed since the lens is parallel to the objective lens. The two lenses share a same optical axis as a result. Adjustable vertical and horizontal cross hairs on the main tube accommodate a diaphragm that is inserted within the tube and is adjusted using capstan-headed screws. Black metal filament wires are properly positioned to form the crosshairs within the diaphragm ring. For stadium leveling, we also provide two additional horizontal cross hairs, one on top and one below the main horizontal wire.

The eyepiece lens allows you to target your subject with pinpoint accuracy. The eyepiece inverted and magnified the image. Erecting eyepieces are those that straighten up the image for a more conventional viewing angle.

Grade Y

The Y level, or Wye-level, is the platform upon which the telescope rests. The telescope may be taken from the y-shaped stands by releasing the clamp screws that came with it. These y-shaped frames, which allow the telescope to rotate, are fastened to a vertical spindle. A rapid check of the adjustments may be done in y-level, as opposed to the time-consuming process required in dumpy level. However, the exposed parts of the level may suffer wear and tear due to friction.

The Syndrome Of Cushing's

The telescope on Cushing's level is permanently attached and cannot be rotated along its longitudinal axis. On the other side, you may switch the object end for the eye piece and vice versa.

Percentage Of Slope

The telescope in the tilting level allows for both horizontal and vertical rotation of 4 degrees. The bubble may be easily centered on this type of level. Each setup bubble, however, requires symmetry thanks to a tilting screw. The main advantage of a tilting level is that it may be used to take many measurements at once.

To Invert Cooke's Reversible Level

Similar to both the dumpy and y-levels, Cooke created the reversible level. In this set-up, the telescope may be turned without the rest of the equipment having to be moved. In this case, collimation error may be decreased thanks to the telescope's bubble left and bubble right measurements.


You may think of the automated level as the "dumpy" level's equivalent. Here, the telescope is securely fastened to its stands. A circular spirit attached to the telescope's side can be used for approximative leveling. The telescope's internal compensator allows for finer adjustment of the focus.

The instrument's compensator might let it find a level position on its own. The compensator, sometimes called a stabilizer, is a pair of fixed prisms that sits between the eyepiece and the objective and smooths out any shakiness in the image. The optical system is swung into the proper line of sight by the compensator when gravity is taken into account. However, the compensator needs to be checked out first, before any attempts at leveling are made.

To test the compensator, just turn the foot screws very little; if the leveling staff reading does not change, the compensator is working perfectly. If the telescope's focus is shifting, give it a little tap to reset the compensator. Automatic level is also known as self-adjusting level.